The Honey Bee in Ancient Times
Dating as far back as the beginning of written history, humans have been utilizing honey bees and their various products. Whether it be the honey, wax, pollen, royal jelly, propolis (bee glue), or venom, there is substantial evidence that ancient civilizations from all over the world used and treasured these products. There are countless stories, poems, songs, and artworks depicting honey bees and their valued place in society. Indeed, there are few items that are mentioned by ancient civilizations as widely and often as honey bees and their honey. Apiculture, the art of beekeeping, was an important part of life in many ancient civilizations such as the Sumerians, Hittites, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Indians, Babylonians, and Assyrians.